J. Multidiscip. Res. Healthcare

A Study to Assess The Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Hepatitis-B among Nursing Students in Selected Schools of Nursing Moga, Punjab

Dhiraj Rani

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  • DOI Number
    https://doi.org/10.15415/jmrh.2015.12006
KEYWORDS

Hepatitis; Structured teaching programme (STP); Nursing Students

PUBLISHED DATE April 2015
PUBLISHER The Author(s) 2015. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/publications
ABSTRACT

Hepatitis is worldwide major public health problem including India. According to World Health Organization fact sheet near about one-third of the world population i.e. about 2 billion person has been infected with Hepatitis B Virus infection with serological evidence of past or present infection. Out of these 2 billion people who have been infected worldwide, more than 350 million approximately 5–7% of the world’s population are having the chronic HBV infection. Health care workers are more prone for getting infected with Hepatitis-B as they are in close contact with the patients; nursing students are the future staff nurses. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge regarding Hepatitis-B among nursing students In Selected Schools of Nursing Moga, Punjab. The purpose of study was to assess the knowledge and to impart the health information regarding Hepatitis B so as to prevent the disease and reduce morbidity and mortality , with the main objectives to assess and compare the pre-test and post-test knowledge, to find out the relationship between pre-test knowledge and post-test knowledge of nursing students with selected demographic variables. Quasi experimental approach and two group pre-test and post test design was used for the present study by taking 60 Nursing students which were selected by purposive sampling technique. A self structured and self reported questionnaire on knowledge assessment regarding Hepatitis B was prepared and validated by the expert’s opinion regarding the relevance of the items. Reliability of the tool was estimated by split half technique which included computing Pearson’s coefficient of correlation and thereafter by applying Spearman Brown prophecy formula, which was found to be 0.8, and the statistical validity was found to be 0.9 hence the tool was highly reliable The questionnaire was administered to the Nursing students to assess their pre test knowledge scores in both the groups. After the pre test, the structured teaching program was given to experimental group by the investigator after one day of pretest with the help of A.V aids. The time spent on structured teaching program was 45 minutes. The post test was taken of both experimental and control group after giving a gap of three day to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme. Data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The study finding revealed that pre test knowledge score of nursing students was inadequate which get increased after imparting the STP. In this study the post-test mean knowledge score of experimental group was higher than the post-test mean knowledge score of control group at p < 0.05 level. This indicates that STP was effective. There was statistically significant effect of certain demographic variables on pre test and post test knowledge score of nursing students in experimental group. It was concluded that nurse plays an important role in disease prevention and promotion of health so providing continuing education programme is essential for nursing staff so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to Hepatitis B.

INTRODUCTION

[5] Hepatitis is major public health problem including India. It refers to the inflammation of the liver which can be caused by viruses A, B, C, D or E. These viruses can be distinguished depending on the predominant mode of transmission — water or blood. Out of these Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are water borne while the Hepatitis B, C and D are blood borne infections. Near about 290,000 cases of acute viral hepatitis were notified under Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme of the NCDC in 2014.

[4] stated that the mode of transmission of Hepatitis B Virus is through blood and is present in high concentration in blood and various body fluids such as serum, serous exudates, saliva, semen and vaginal fluid. The most important mode of transmission in intermediate and high endemic areas believed to be perinatal transmission i.e. mother to fetus transmission while sexual transmission is the predominant route in low endemic areas.

According to [13] near about one-third of the world population i.e. about 2 billion person has been infected with Hepatitis B Virus infection with serological evidence of past or present infection. Out of these 2 billion people who have been infected worldwide, more than 350 million approximately 5–7% of the world’s population are having the chronic HBV infection. Approximately 15–40% of patients infected with HBV will develop life-threatening liver complications such as cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma resulting in 600,000 to 1.2 million deaths per year due to HBV.

[10] stated that the burden of the disease varies from country to country and the countries are classified as high, intermediate and low endemic area based on the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).The high endemic area has the prevalence rate of > 8% , intermediate (2–7%) or low endemic area (< 2% HBsAg positive population. .India . in South Asia region is classified as intermediate endemic area as it has prevalence rate of 2-4.7% and accounts for 10-15% of the entire pool HBV carriers globally

[12] revealed that Hepatitis B virus infection has been recognized as an important occupational hazard for health care workers. Healthcare personnel (HCW) can be defined as persons (e.g. Doctors, nurses, paramedical staff, students of various fields of health departments, public-safety workers, or volunteers) who are in direct contact with patients or with blood or other body fluids from patients. They can be exposed to the risk for HBV, HCV, or HIV infection through percutaneous injury (e.g., a needle-stick or cut with a sharp object) or contact with mucous membrane (of eyes, mouth, nose, etc.) or non-intact skin (e.g., exposed skin that is chapped, abraded, or afflicted with dermatitis) with blood, tissue, or other body fluids that are potentially infectious.

Therefore as studies show that Hepatitis B prevalence is high. Health care workers are more prone for getting infected with Hepatitis-B as they are in close contact with the patients. Nursing students are the future staff nurses. The purpose of the general nursing program is to prepare general nurse who will function as member of the health team beginning with competencies for first level position in both hospital and community so they must be knowing each and every aspect of Hepatitis-B, so the investigator decided to assess the knowledge of Nursing students regarding Hepatitis B and to provide them teaching to upgrade their knowledge which helps them in meeting the most important role of the nurse in disease prevention and health promotion thereby reducing the mortality rate due to Hepatitis B.

Page(s) 75–95
URL http://dspace.chitkara.edu.in/jspui/bitstream/1/559/3/12006_JMRH_Dhiraj.pdf
ISSN Print : 2393-8536, Online : 2393-8544
DOI https://doi.org/10.15415/jmrh.2015.12006
CONCLUSION

As it is well known fact that “Prevention is always better than cure”. Hepatitis is most dreadful disease but it can also be prevented by educating the community people by taking certain precautions. Focusing on primary prevention educating nursing students would be best resource. Educating one student will educate a number of people. Keeping this in view the investigator planned and constructed a self structured questionnaire and STP which was administered to students and tested for its effectiveness in achieving the desired goal. STP was effective in increasing the knowledge as shown by higher post-test mean knowledge score of experimental group than control group at p < 0.05 level. .

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