Naveen Kumar, S.N.Panda, Preethi Pradhan
Automatic Drug delivery, Infusion pump, Open Loop, Closed Loop, Depth of Anaesthesia, BIS.
|PUBLISHED DATE||April 2017|
|PUBLISHER||The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/ Publications|
Clinical scenario for critically ill patients involves large number of medical devices, such as, bed side monitors that provide vital information about the admitted patient. Critically ill patients need prompt and perfect decision, so that lifesaving drugs can be delivered at a proper time. Moreover suggestions/ recommendations of a super specialist doctor may also be required in hospitals. The main problem in hospitals is lack of specialist doctors, so, patients are not able to approach to them on time. Automatic drug delivery using microprocessor/ microcontroller has improved tremendously in recent years due to advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This paper is focused on various Drug Delivery System Interfaces used in emergency cases to reduce manual intervention. We are proposing a hybrid approach for drug dispensing, which can work as open or closed loop system. Another feature of this system is that it can be controlled from a remote location, so is to provide virtual presence of a doctor. The system will help the doctor monitor the patient as per the immediate requirement and deliver drug remotely to patient using smart phone.
The primary goal of Health Professionals should be the provision of the best possible quality care of the patient. This becomes possible due to automated medical devices which are equipped with microprocessors/ controller/ sensors. Automatic Drug Delivery System using infusion pumps/ drug dispenser which come with controllers to control hypnosis has improved tremendously in recent years. Automated drug delivery system is controlled by pharmacodynamics feedback known as closed loop system performs better in comparison with model base (open loop system). Thus, drug delivery is a technique which is used to control the pharmaceutical compounds in human beings to administer the therapeutic effects. The prime role of health science is to provide best care to the patients . An extensive literature review was conducted using the terms: open loop, closed loop, automatic drug delivery system, distant monitoring and vital sign monitoring. In this research paper a survey was conducted to collect data from doctors. This survey was aimed to design the architectural model of the drug delivery system capable of delivering accurate amount of drug. The subsequent part of the paper is divided in sections: in the next section we discuss about Manual Drug Delivery System. In section III Automatic Drug Delivery System is introduced. In section IV Open Loop Drug Delivery is discussed. Section V is about closed loop drug delivery system. Section VI is about outcome of the survey and final section presents conclusion and future work
|ISSN||Print : 2393-8536, Online : 2393-8544|
Healthcare technology is constantly changing. However one of the biggest reasons for uptake of a new technology is the Doctor’s willingness. If a technology is available but no one is ready to adopt it; then it is of no use. Therefore it is essential to know the willingness of the intended user. Our study has shown that a drug delivery system is required that can be operated both in closed loop and open loop and can transmit vital parameters of the patient to an expert at a remote location. The proposed system has a database that assists the researcher to view the detailed case study (on a minute to minute basis). Doctors can also plan about the drug e.g. name of the drug, rate of the drug, fix up the range of vital signs and action. This system can be used effectively post surgeries in ICU/CCU. It consists of a switch that can be pressed by the patient if he/she is having pain, This information may be sent to the doctor on his/her smart phone that patient has pain. Expert system facility can also be incorporated within hybrid drug delivery system to make it more reliable.