Feeding habits, Overweight, Obesity and Hypertension and Associated Factors among Polytechnic Students in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria

Published: October 14, 2020


I. O. Dada, I. A. Igbe

Overweight, Obesity, Blood pressure, Feeding pattern, Higher institution students


Overweight and obesity is a risk factor to chronic non-communicable diseases. This study assessed level of overweight/obesity and blood pressure among students of a higher institution in Southwest Nigeria. This cross-section study involved 300 students of a public higher institution in Ado-Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on personal characteristics, feeding pattern and lifestyle of the students. Body Mass Index (BMI) was categorized into normal weight (BMI<25) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25). Waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) were classified as normal and at risk. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Chi square test was used to establish relationship between variables at 5% level of significance. The mean age of the students was 22.25 years and 62.8% were above 20years. Monthly allowance
less than ₦30000.00 was received by 64.4% of the students, 47.3% skipped breakfast meal, 96% consumed carbonated soft drinks and 37.1% did not engaged in physical exercise. Prevalence of general obesity was 17.1% (BMI≥25); 7% and 15.5% were at risk of abdominal and central obesity respectively. Students in systolic pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension were 33.3% and 3% respectively whereas 15.5% and 2.4% were in diastolic pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension respectively. Female gender, monthly allowance less than ₦30000.00 and adolescent stage were associated with obesity. Older age, male gender and monthly allowance less than ₦30000.00 were associated with BP. Nutrition education is recommended for this population group.


Abdulfatah, H.A. (2020). Unhealthy dietary as a lifestyle-risk determinant of non-communicable diseases among Federal University students in North-West Zone, Nigeria. KIU Journal of Humanities, 5(3), 163–171.

Olufemi, A.J., & Abiodun, L.L. (2013). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in an institutionalized multi ethnic based male adult sample. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(5), 234-237.

Adesola, O.A., Ayodeji, R.-A.M., Akorede, Q.J., & Oluranti, O., (2014). Breakfast habit and nutritional status of undergraduates in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health, 2(4), 252-256. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjph.20140204.11

Agwo, E.O., Adewunmi, H.O. (2020). Effect of alcohol consumption on the nutritional status of male diploma students in the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro. Journal of Women in Technical Education and Employment (JOWITED), The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro Chapter, 1(1), 62-68.

Agwu, E.M., Draper, S., Croix, M.D.S., Egimot-Nwadiaro, R., & Onuoha, C.R. (2017). Health rating, obesity and hypertension among university students in Nigeria by gender and ethnicity. World Journal of Public Health, 2(4), 131-143.

Alaba, K.E. (2018). The influence of nutrition education on dietary pattern and eating habits among female students of The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro. Nigerian Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 18, 145-154.

Alhaj, A., & Alqubaty, A.R. (2020). Prevalence and risk factors associated with obesity among students of a private university in Sana’a, Yemen. International Journal of BioMedicine and Public Health, 3(2), 30-34.

Alhawari, H.H., Al-Shelleh, S., Alhawari, H.H., Al-Saudi, A., Al-Majali, D.A., Al-Faris, L., & AlRyalat, S.A. (2018). Blood pressure and its association with gender, body mass index, smoking, and family history among university students. International Journal of Hypertension, 2014, 4186496. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4186496

Aliyu, S.U., Ahmad, J.T., & Oyeyemi, A.Y. (2014). Relationship between body mass index and blood pressure among university students in Maiduguri, Nigeria. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research, 1(11), 091-096.

Arisa, N., Anaemene, D., & Mekwunye, W. (2020). Assessment of overweight, obesity and the dietary habits of undergraduate students of Lagos State University. European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety, 12(5), 25-34. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530225

Attah, M.O.O., Chiroma, M.S, Ishaya, H.B., Paul, A., & Jacob, A. (2016). Measurement of obesity as indicated by body mass index using waist-hip ratio among apparently healthy students in University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, 5(3), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.20286/jmbs-050305

Ayodele, O.E., Akanbi, O.O., Akinwusi, P.O., Hassan, A.O., & Ogunro, P.O. (2009). Urinary abnormalities, blood pressure and anthropometric profiles among students in a Nigerian University. Tropical Journal of Nephrology, 4(1), 21-29.

Bagi, S.J., Daniel, E.E., Rabiu, K.M., & Ezekiel, I. (2017). Assessment of body weight, body mass index and waist-hip ratio on academic performance of female students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, 6(4), 65-70.

Bakar, A.A.A., Hussin, N., Jalil, A.M.M., & Mohamad, M. (2020). Association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and body mass index among university students in Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(2), 19-26. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.20/no.2/art.323

Bernardo, G.L., Jomori, M.M., Fernandes, A.C., & Proenç, R.P.C. (2017). Food intake of university students. Revista de Nutricao, 30(6), 847-865. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-98652017000600016

Davar, V. (2015). Body composition analysis of university students by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 9(6), 492-496.

Deng, X., Castelli, D., Castro-Pinero, J., & Guan, H. (2017). University students meeting the recommended standards of physical activity and body mass index. Journal of Research, 6(1), 20-26.

Ezeh, E.C., & Kadiri, S. (2020). Blood pressure, hypertension and obesity in young adults in a tertiary health institution in Southwest Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 23(SE1), 81-84.

Gan, W.Y., Mohd, N.M.T., Zalilah, M.S., & Hazizi, A.S. (2011). Differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake and body weight status between male and female Malaysian University students. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 17(2), 213-228

Gwarzo, I.M., Adam, M.N., Wali, N.Y., & Ibrahim, S.A. (2020). Correlation of anthropometric indices with fasting blood glucose and blood pressure among university students in Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences, 17(2), 128-134. https://doi.org/10.4103/njbcs.njbcs_38_19

Gyamfi, D., Obirikorang, C., Acheampong, E., Danquah, K.O., Asamoah, E.A., Liman, F.Z., Batu, E. N. (2018). Prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension and its related risk factors among undergraduate students in a tertiary institution, Ghana. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 54(4), 475-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2018.02.002

Hujová, Z. (2013). The prevalence of obesity and hypertension among first-year students at Trnava University in Slovakia. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 5(8), 361-367.

Ikujenlola, A.V., & Adekoya, T.S. (2020). Nutritional status and feeding habits of females in public and private universities in Osun State, Southwestern, Nigeria. Heliyon, 6(9), e05023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05023

Irfan, M. (2018). Nutritional habits and obesity: A case study among Pakistani Universities Students. Journal of Food and Nutritional Disorders, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000249

Issa, L.F. (2015). Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and overweight among Taif University students, Taif, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 4(1), 98-106

Katuka, S.K., Faleti, O.C., Medavarapu, S., Ogungbite, A., Ugokwe, C.J., Umoffia, I.R., & Sangem, A. (2016). The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and the influence of exercise and diet on body weight among medical students. Archives of Medicine, 8(5), https://doi.org/10.21767/1989-5216.1000164

Kayode, O.O., & Alabi, Q.K. (2020). Food consumption patterns, physical activity and overweight and obesity among undergraduates of a private university in Nigeria. Clinical Nutrition Experimental, 31, 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yclnex.2020.01.001

Kolawole, A.K., Kevin, N.U., Oluwole, I., & Ademola, S. (2017). The association of socio-demographic factors with overweight/obesity among students (Ages 18-35 years) in Cavendish University. Uganda. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale), 7(6), 1000328. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-1165.1000328

Kutty, N.A.M., Ru, T.Y., Chiang, V.H.Q., & Zhi, W.Y. (2015). Association of dietary habits and body mass index among university students in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 4(5), 78-85.

Maduka, O., Ezema, U.G., & Ofori, S. (2017). Elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among a cohort of young adults: findings from a tertiary institution in South-South Nigeria. The Nigerian Health Journal, 17(3), 79-89.

Mansouri, M., Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Yaghubi, H., Rahmani, J., Tabrizi, Y.M., Keshtkar, A., Varmaghani, M., Sharifi, F., & Sadeghi, O. (2018). Breakfast consumption pattern and its association with overweight and obesity among university students: a population-based study. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 25, 379–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-018-0609-8

Mogre, V., Aleyira, S., & Nyaba, R. (2014). Factors associated with central overweight and obesity in students attending the University for Development Studies in Tamale, Ghana: a cross-sectional study. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 27(2), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/16070658.2014.11734490

Mogre, V., Nyaba, R., & Aleyira, S. (2014). Lifestyle risk factors of general and abdominal obesity in students of the school of medicine and health science of the University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014, 508382. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/508382

Mohammadbeigi, A., Asgarian, A., Moshir, E., Heidari, H., Afrashteh, S., Khazaei, S., & Ansari, H. (2018). Fast food consumption and overweight/obesity prevalence in students and its association with general and abdominal obesity. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 59(3), E236-E240. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2018.59.3.830

Moretti, G. de S., Muniz, P.T., Tavares, C.M., Brunken, G.S., de Farias Júnior, J.C., & Farias, E. dos S. (2014). Prevalence of and factors associated with overweight among university students from Rio Branco, Acre – Brazil. Revista Brasileira Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano, 16(4), 406-418. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n4p406

Moussa, M.M.M., El-mowafy, R.I., & El-Ezaby, H.H. (2016). Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among university students: Comparative study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 6(5), 19-27. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v6n5p19

Niba, L.L., Mary, B., Atanga, M.B., & Navti, L.K. (2017). A cross sectional analysis of eating habits and weight status of university students in urban Cameroon. BMC Nutrition, 3, 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-017-0178-7

Nmor, J., Nwaka, K.H., & Nmor, J. C. (2014). Eating behaviours of university students in Southern Nigeria: an evaluation of sex differences. Science Journal of Public Health, 2(1), 23-37. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjph.20140201.14

Nwachukwu, D.C., Nwagha, U.I., Obikili, E.N., Ejezie, F.E., Okwuosa, C.N., Nweke, M.L., & Ezeh, C.O. (2010). Assessment of body mass index and blood pressure among university students in, Enugu, South East, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 19(2), 148–152. https://doi.org/10.4314/njm.v19i2.56503

Obesidade, S.E., & Obesidad, S.Y. (2017). Overweight and obesity: Association with the socioeconomic level of university students. Journal of Nursing UFPE, 11(10), 3807-3812.

Odili, V.U., Egor, F.O., Osarenmwinda, I.M., & Obieche, A.O. (2014). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among pharmacy students in a university in Benin City, Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 13(12), 2109-2114. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i12.23

Oghagbon, K.E., Odili, V.U., Nwangwa, E.K., & Pender, K.E. (2009). Body mass index and blood pressure pattern of students in Nigerian university. International Journal of Health Research, 2(2), 177-182. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijhr.v2i2.55416

Oh, Y., Kang, B.J., Yoo, S., & Lopez, A. (2016). Overweight and obese college students’ perceived barriers and motivators for a healthy lifestyle. European Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(4), 17-26. https://doi.org/10.19044/ejes.v3no4a17

Okafor, A.M., Nwazojie, I.Z., & Afiaenyi, I.C. (2018). Nutrition knowledge and factors associated with anthropometric and haematological indices among female undergraduate students in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, 17(2), 58–64. https://doi.org/10.4314/as.v17i2.8

Okondu, O.E., Ogueri, C., Afolabi, A., & Ifediora, U. (2020). Dietary Practices Associated with Obesity among Babcock University Students in Ilishan-Remo, Ikenne Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Preprints, 2020, 2020050228. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202005.0228.v1

Oladoyinbo, C.A., & Ekerette, N.N. (2015). Double Burden of Malnutrition among Undergraduates in Ogun State Nigeria. International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS), 4(4), 315-319. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v4i4.4752

Olatona, F.A., Onabanjo, O.O., Ugbaja, R.N., Nnoaham, K.E., & Adelekan, D.A. (2018). Dietary habits and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases in a university undergraduate population. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 37, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41043-018-0152-2

Olumakaiye, M.F., Ogbimi, G.E, Ogunba, B.O., & Soyebo, K.O. (2010). Snacking as a contributor to overweight among Nigerian undergraduate students. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences, 31(2), 76-80. https://doi.org/10.4314/njns.v31i2.63921

Olusanya, J.O., & Omotayo, O.A. (2011). Prevalence of Obesity among Undergraduate Students of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10(10), 940-946. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2011.940.946

Ren, X., Chen, Y., He, L., Jin, Y., Tian, L., Lu, M., Lu, W., Ding, L. Guo, D., Wang, L., Nie, Z., & Yao, Y. (2015). Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students from the region of Anhui (China). Nutricion hospitalaria, 31(3), 1089-1093. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.31.3.8395

Sedodo, N.S., Abosede, O.P., Ilori, O.A., Adenekan, M.K., Idowu, O.M., Nupo, A.O., & Akinlotan, J.V. (2020). Assessment of fasting blood glucose level of undergraduates in Abeokuta Ogun State Nigeria. Archives of Current Research International, 20(5), 42-49. https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2020/v20i530196

Sofía, R.B.A., María, T.T.L., del Pilar, P.D.M., Dario, G.H., Adame, N.A.E., & Guillermo, O.V. (2015). Prevalence and Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among University Students of the Health Field in San Luis Potosí México. Health, 7(3), 328-335. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2015.73037

Tapera, R., Merapelo, M.T., Tumoyagae, T., Maswabi, T.M., Erick, P., Letsholo, B., & Mbongwe, B. (2017). The prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among University of Botswana students. Cogent Medicine, 4(1), 1357249. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017.1357249

The GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators (2017). Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. The New England Journal of Medicine, 377(1), 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1614362

Ukegbu, P.O., Uwaegbute, A.C., Echendu, C.A., Ejike, C., Anyika-Elekeh, J.U, Asumugha, V.U., Kuyik, S.A., Omodamiro, S., Nwofia, B., Uzokwe, C., Oluchi-Nliam, C., & Uwakwe, N. (2017). Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 30(2), 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/16070658.2016.1259032

Ukegbu, P.O., Uwaegbute, A.C., & Usonka, V.A. (2015). Contribution of snacks to energy and nutrient intake of undergraduates in a Nigerian university, Malaysian journal of nutrition, 21(1), 15-23.

WHO (2003). Promoting mental health. World Health Organizations report 2003; P27. Retrieved on February 10, 2019, from https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf

How to Cite

I. O. Dada, I. A. Igbe. Feeding habits, Overweight, Obesity and Hypertension and Associated Factors among Polytechnic Students in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. J. Multidiscip. Res. Healthcare. 2020, 07, 33-48
Feeding habits, Overweight, Obesity and Hypertension and Associated Factors among Polytechnic Students in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria

Current Issue

ISSN Print2393-8536
ISSN Online2393-8544
RNI No.CHAENG/2014/57978
OA Policy

Publisher's policy of the journal at Sherpa UK for the submitted, accepted, and published articles. Click OAPolicy

Plan-S Compliance

To check compliance, one has to use the Journal Check Tool (JCT). This tool provided by cOAlition S (European funders) for the researchers (fundee) to check the compliance with the journal.

Recommend journal to your library

You can recommend the journal being a researcher or faculty member to your library. We will post a copy of the Journal to your library on your behalf at free of cost.
Click here: Recommend Journal

Preprint Arxiv Submission

The authors are encouraged to submit the author’s copy (preprint) to appropriate preprint archives e.g. https://arxiv.org and/or on https://indiarxiv.org or institutional repositories (e.g., D Space) before paper acceptance by the editor of Journal. After publications of the paper author(s) should mention the citation information, title and abstract along with DOI number of the publication carefully on the required page of the depository(ies).


Phone: +91-172-2741000, +91-172-4691800
Email : editor.jmrh@chitkara.edu.in

Abstract and Indexing

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Articles in Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at https://jmrh.chitkara.edu.in/. This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.

View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode

View Licence Deed here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Creative Commons License

Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://jmrh.chitkara.edu.in/