Impact of Uncorrected Vision on Productivity-A study in an Industrial setting a Pair of Spectacles

Published: April 6, 2015


Keerti Bhusan Pradhan

Impact, Productivity, Spectacles


Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) around one billion people worldwide in developing countries need vision correction. Uuncorrected vision is believed to be responsible for a widespread loss of labour productivity and quality, reading and literacy problems, and other problems such as road and domestic accidents.
There is however, a lack of data on both the prevalence and the effects of uncorrected vision. As a result, governments and funding agencies have been hesitant to prioritise vision correction in their health and social development agenda.
This acute lack of access to vision correction across the developing world is primarily due to inadequate number of eye care professionals, facilities and the high cost of providing spectacles.
Objective of the study: As there are not any studies in the area of uncorrected vision and impact on productivity, this study was undertaken as a pilot study with an intention of understanding the impact of productivity among employees needing vision correction in comparison with those not needing correction but doing identical work, and to measure subsequent changes in productivity following vision correction among the former group through the supply of prescription spectacles.
Method: Tthe research was undertaken among a group of 238 workers engaged in spinning and winding function at a cotton spinning and textile factory in Madurai. productivity data was collected for 30 working shifts for each employee. Tthen the eye test was done by a team comprising of Ophthalmologist and Optometrist from Aravind Eeye Hospital (WHO Collaborating Centre) and given the corrective glass to those who were prescribed the correction. after a month of gap given to get used to the glasses, again the productivity data was collected for 30 working shifts for all the samples in the first phase and analysed.
Results: Out of the 238 (111 Sspinners + 127 Winders) workers undergone eyesight testing, 187 (90 + 97 Winders) workers needed vision correction which is around 80% of the total test done. Of these 187 needing vision correction, 169 (75%) were presbyopic and needed glasses for near vision correction. All those who were identified as needing vision correction were given spectacles. In terms of productivity measurement, though there were problems in tracking the data each employee wise due to various reasons as the industry was undergoing a transition at that point of time. With the best available data, the spinners showed an average improvement of 9.5% (with a standard error in the mean of 1.6); 44% improved their productivity by more 10% on previous output levels whilst 23% exceeded them by 20%. Tthe winders showed less change after the provision of spectacles with 23% increasing their productivity by 10% of the factory standard, demonstrating that this task made less demand on workers visual acuity. Pradhan, KB120
Conclusion: A significantly higher proportion of industry workers having poor vision due to Refractive error. Tthey never try to correct this error unless the vision problem is a major hurdle in their work and social life. Tthe ignorance may be due to, not a painful problem, access to immediate services in eye care, cost of services, inconvenience in using a foreign object, cosmetic value, no realization of quality and performance attached to work.
Constraints: study could have been better if these following constraints were not there Industry was undergoing a transition from Manual to Automation processes. Tthere was drive of Voluntary Retirement scheme (VRSs). If the study team could have got more time to think over the strategy and methodology.
Policy Issues: Tthe sight test result showed a high percentage of uncorrected refractive error in a high profile industrial setting. Tthis could mean some percentage of loss of productivity and also a stake in quality of the product due to sight problem. gives an impression to study on subjects who are involved in products linked to productivity and quality like export products, jewellary, thread work, handicrafts, textiles, manual industrial works and also life threatening workers like driving and food products industries, where good sight means a lot. As a policy the industrial settings should include eye testing in to their regular health screening programmes as this has direct implications to the work and outcome of the industry.


[1] elimination of avoidable visual disability due to refractive errors, Report of an informal planning meeting, Geneva, 3-5 July 2000, WHO/PBL/00.79
[2] Holden BA, Sulaiman S, Knox K. The challenge of providing spectacles in the developing world. Journal of Community Eye Health, 2000, 13:9-10. PMid:17491946 PMCid:PMC1705961
[3] Dandona R et al. Refractive errors in an urban population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh eye Disease study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 1999, 40:2810-2818PMid:10549640
[4] Wensor M, McCarty CA, Taylor HR. Prevalence and risk factors of myopia in Victoria, Australia. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1999, 117:658-663. PMid:10326965
[5] Lewallen s et al. A population-based survey of refractive error in Malawi. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 1995, 2:145-149.
[6] Preslan MW, Novak A. Baltimore vision screening project. Ophthalmology, 1996, 103:105-109.
[7] Dandona L et al. Burden of moderate visual impairment in an urban population in southern India. Ophthalmology, 1999, 106:497-504.
[8] Pararajasegaram R. VIsION 2020-the Right to sight: from strategies to action. American journal of Ophthalmology, 1999, 128:359-360. PMid:10511033
[9] Shamanna B R et al. Economic burden of blindness in India. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 1998, 46:169-172. PMid:10085631.
[10] Dandona R, Dandona L. Refractive error Blindness. Bulletin of the WHO, 2001, 79:237-243PMid:11285669 PMCid:PMC2566380
[11] Dandona R, Dandona L. Review of findings of the Andhra Pradesh eye Disease study: Policy implications for eye-care services. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 2001, 49:215-34 PMid:12930114

How to Cite

Keerti Bhusan Pradhan. Impact of Uncorrected Vision on Productivity-A study in an Industrial setting a Pair of Spectacles. J. Multidiscip. Res. Healthcare. 2015, 01, 119-131
Impact of Uncorrected Vision on Productivity-A study in an Industrial setting a Pair of Spectacles

Current Issue

ISSN Print2393-8536
ISSN Online2393-8544
RNI No.CHAENG/2014/57978
OA Policy

Publisher's policy of the journal at Sherpa UK for the submitted, accepted, and published articles. Click OAPolicy

Plan-S Compliance

To check compliance, one has to use the Journal Check Tool (JCT). This tool provided by cOAlition S (European funders) for the researchers (fundee) to check the compliance with the journal.

Recommend journal to your library

You can recommend the journal being a researcher or faculty member to your library. We will post a copy of the Journal to your library on your behalf at free of cost.
Click here: Recommend Journal

Preprint Arxiv Submission

The authors are encouraged to submit the author’s copy (preprint) to appropriate preprint archives e.g. and/or on or institutional repositories (e.g., D Space) before paper acceptance by the editor of Journal. After publications of the paper author(s) should mention the citation information, title and abstract along with DOI number of the publication carefully on the required page of the depository(ies).


Phone: +91-172-2741000, +91-172-4691800
Email :

Abstract and Indexing


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Articles in Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications (J. Nucl. Phy. Mat. Sci. Rad. A.) by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.

View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license,

View Licence Deed here

Creative Commons License

Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at