Nutritional Status and Perceived Stress of Healthcare Professionals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Published: October 6, 2023


O. M. Adeojo, I.O. Dada and K. Ajayi

Stress, Overweight, Obesity, Healthcare professionals


Background: The healthcare profession has been associated with stress which has been found to affect nutritional status.

Purpose: This study was aimed at evaluating the perceived stress-nutritional status nexus of healthcare professionals in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 414 healthcare professionals. The study sample was obtained by using a two-stage cluster sampling approach. Data on socio-demographic and meal pattern was collected through a pretested self-administered questionnaire.

Results: Body Mass Index (BMI) was obtained from height and weight measurements and classified as underweight (BMI<18.5), normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.99), overweight (BMI=25.0-29.99), obesity (BMI≥30). Perceived stress was evaluated using the perceived stress scale version 10 (PSS-10). Data were analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 26 and subjected to Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to establish relationship and predictors of perceived stress at 5% level of significance. The healthcare professionals’ age was 35.91±9.31 years with 86.2% being ≤ 45 years and 60% were females. Two meals a day were taken by 85.7%. BMI showed 49.3% to be overweight/obese. The mean perceived stress score was 15.02 with 47.6% having high perceived stress. Age (p=0.016), gender (p=0.001), marital status (p=0.001) and professional group (p=0.048) had significant relationship with perceived stress. The association between BMI and perceived stress was not significant (Chi-square = 0.562;
p=0.905). Predictors of stress were gender (OR: 0.505, CI=0.308-0.830; p=0.007) and marital status (OR: 1.914, CI=1.143-3.208; p=0.014).

Conclusion: The study showed high level of obesity and perceived stress. Nutrition education intervention is recommended.


Adeloye, D., Ige-Elegbede, J., Ezejimofor, M., Owolabi, E., Ezeigwe, N., Omoyele, C., Mpazanje, R., Dewan, M., Agogo, E., Gadanya, M., Alemu, W., Harhay, M., Auta, A., & Adebiyi, A. (2021). Estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria in 2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Medicine, 53(1), 495–507.

Adeolu, J. O., Yussuf, O. B., & Popoola, O. A. (2016). Prevalence and Correlates of Job Stress among Junior Doctors in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, 14(2), 92–98.

Adeomi, A. A., Akande, R. O., Obiajunwa, C., Oduntan, O., & Ogbukwo, E. (2020). Cardiometabolic risk and its association with dietary diversity, activity patterns and the nutritional status of workers in tertiary educational institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. Cardiometabolic Risk and Its Association with Dietary Diversity, Activity Patterns and the Nutritional Status of Workers in Tertiary Educational Institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. Published.

Akinsulore, A., Adegbenro, C. A., Balogun, Y. A., Elekwachi, G., Babalola, O. O., & Akinlua, F. M. (2020). Perceived Stress and its Relationship with Coping Strategies among Doctors at a Tertiary Hospital in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine, 37 (2), 145–151.

Alao, A. O., Obimakinde, A. M., & Ogunbode, A. M. (2020). Effect of workplace stress on the perceived health of resident doctors in Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, 20 (1), 18-25

Alhassan, R. K., Poku, K. A. (2018). Experiences of frontline nursing staff on workplace safety and occupational health hazards in two psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. BMC Public Health, 18, 701.

Alosaimi, F. D., Kazim, S. N., Almufleh, A. S., Aladwani, B. S., & Alsubaie, A. S. (2015). Prevalence of stress and its determinants among residents in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 36(5), 605–612.

Alqarni, T., Alghamdi, A., Alzahrani, A., Abumelha, K., Alqurashi, Z., & Alsaleh, A. (2022). Prevalence of stress, burnout, and job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. PLoS ONE, 17(4), e0267578. 0267578

Anwer, S., Manzar, M. D., Alghadir, A. H., Salahuddin, M., & Abdul Hameed, U. (2020). Psychometric Analysis of the Perceived Stress Scale among Healthy University Students. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 16, 2389–2396.

Asani, M., Farouk, Z., & Gambo, S. (2016). Prevalence of perceived stress among clinical students of Bayero University Medical School. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences, 13(1), 55.

Banwat, M. E., Haruna, S. A., Vongdip, N. G., Duru, A. K., & Afolaranmi, T. O. (2018). Assessment of the nutritional knowledge, eating habits and nutritional statuses of healthcare workers in Jos, North-Central Nigeria. Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 3(2), 15-22.

Barrington, W. E., Ceballos, R. M., Bishop, S. K., McGregor, B. A., Beresford, S. A. A. (2012). Perceived Stress, Behavior, and Body Mass Index among Adults Participating in a Worksite Obesity Prevention Program, Seattle, 2005–2007. Prev. Chronic Dis. 9:120001. DOI:

Bastianon, C. D., Klein, E. M., Tibubos, A. N., Brähler, E., Beutel, M. E., & Petrowski, K. (2020). Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) psychometric properties in migrants and native Germans. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1).

Bhelkar, S., Deshpande, S., Mankar, S., & Hiwarkar, P.(2018). Association between stress and hypertension among adults more than 30 Years: A case-control study. National Journal of Community Medicine ,9(6) , 430-433.

Birhanu, M., Gebrekidan, B., Tesefa, G., & Tareke, M. (2018). Workload determines workplace stress among health professionals working in Felege-Hiwot referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 1–8.

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24 (4), 385-396.

Dada, I. (2017). The meal pattern and incidence of overweight and obesity among market women in a Southwest community, Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Obesity, 5(2), 70.

Dada, I., Ajayi, K., & Werimegbe, M. (2021). Exploring mass media to improve fruit consumption pattern of a section of Nigerian adult population. Annals of the Romania Society for Cell Biology, 4604–4616.

Emond, M., ten Eycke, K., Kosmerly, S., Robinson, L., Stillar, A., & van Blyderveen, S. (2016). The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters. Appetite, 100, 210–215.

Gifkins, J., Johnston, A., & Loudoun, R. (2018). The impact of shift work on eating patterns and self-care strategies utilised by experienced and inexperienced nurses. Chronobiology International, 35(6), 811–820.

Godifay, G., Worku, W., Kebede, G., Tafese, A., & Gondar, E. (2018). Work related stress among health care workers in Mekelle City administration public hospitals, North Ethiopia. Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing, 46

Haile, K. (2017). Assessment of occupational stress and associated factors among nurses in East Gojjam zone public hospitals Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical Medicine Research, 6(2), 43.

Hasen, A. A., Seid, A. A., & Mohammed, A. A. (2023). Anxiety and stress among healthcare professionals during COVID-19 in Ethiopia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2023, 13: e070367. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-070367

Hassard, J., Teoh, K. R. H., Visockaite, G., Dewe, P., & Cox, T. (2017). The Cost of Work-Related Stress to Society: A Systematic Review. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(1), [accessed Dec 03 2021].

Health and Safety Executive. (2011). Management standards on work-related stress, retrieved from on 21st August, 2015.

Hemiö, K., Lindström, J., Peltonen, M., Härmä, M., Viitasalo, K., & Puttonen, S. (2020). The association of work stress and night work with nutrient intake – a prospective cohort study. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 46(5), 533–541.

Honor, W. (2017). Chronic stress may raise obesity risk, Medical news today 2017. https://www.medicalnews

Huang, F., Wang, H., Wang, Z., Zhang, J., Du, W., Su, C., Jia, X., Ouyang, Y., Wang, Y., Li, L., Jiang, H., & Zhang, B. (2020). Psychometric properties of the perceived stress scale in a community sample of Chinese. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1),

Ikujenlola, A., & Adekoya, T. (2020). Nutritional status and feeding habits of females in public and private Universities in Osun State, Southwestern, Nigeria. Heliyon, 6(9), e05023.

Isfahani, P., Arefy, M., Peyravi, S., Bahador, R. C., & Afshari, M. (2020). A systematic review and meta-analysis of Job stress among Iranian nurses. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Job Stress among Iranian Nurses,

Joaquim, A., Custódio, S., Savva-Bordalo, J., Chacim, S., Carvalhais, I., Lombo, L., Lopes, H., Araújo, A., & Gomes, R. (2017). Burnout and occupational stress in the medical residents of Oncology, Haematology and Radiotherapy: a prevalence and predictors study in Portugal. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 23(3), 317–324.

Kakemam, E., Raeissi, P., Raoofi, S., Soltani, A., Sokhanvar, M., Visentin, C., & Cleary, M. (2019). Occupational stress and associated risk factors among nurses: a cross-sectional study. Contemporary Nurse, 55(2–3), 237–249.

Lee, G., Han, K., & Kim, H. (2017). Risk of mental health problems in adolescents skipping meals: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Nursing Outlook, 65(4), 411–419.

Mucci, N., Giorgi, G., de Pasquale Ceratti, S., Fiz-Pérez, J., Mucci, F., & Arcangeli, G. (2016). Anxiety, stress-related factors, and blood pressure in young adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 7,

Ndejjo, R., Musinguzi, G., Yu, X., Buregyeya, E., Musoke, D., Wang, S., Halage, A., Whalen, C., Bazeyo, W., Williams, P., & Ssempebwa, J. (2015). Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. Journal of Environmental and Public Health,

Nemera, A. (2018). Assessment of job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Government hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia, 2018.
Nwankwo, C., Karanja, S., & Vasanthakaalam, H. (2017). The occurrence of occupational health hazards in districts health facilities in Kigali, Rwanda. International Journal of Community Medicine And Public Health, 5(1), 21-29. doi:

Odonkor, S. T., & Adams, S. (2021). Predictors of stress and associated factors among healthcare workers in Western Ghana. Heliyon, 7, e07223.

Ogba, A. (2020). Occupational stress and its management among health care workers in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State. Health Science Journal, 14(5), 738.

Oke, O., & Asamu, F. (2013). Employee perspectives of workplace health promotion in selected institutions in Nigeria. Journal of Research in National Development, 11, 67-74.

Okwor, T. J., Ndu, A. C., Arinze-Onyia, S. U., Ogugua, I. J., Obionu, I. M., Agwu-Umahi, O. R., Okeke, T. A., & Aguwa, E. N. (2020). Prevalence and Predictors of Stress among Bankers in Enugu State South-East Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care, 32 (2), 68-79.

Olaitan, O. O., Olanrewaju, O. I., Akinmoladun, F. O., & Fadupin, G. T. (2020). Central Obesity and Stress-Predisposing Factors to Hypertension among Health Workers in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria. Current Research in Diabetes and Obesity Journal, 12(4), 00111-00116.

Onigbogi, B., & Banerjee, S. (2019). Prevalence of psychosocial stress and its risk factors among health-care workers in Nigeria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association, 60 (5), 238–244.

Ossai, E. N., Alo, A. T., Onwe, B. C., Okoro, D. O., Ezeagu, N. E., & Ogbonnaya, L. U. (2019). Prevalence and Predictors of Perceived Stress: A Study among Medical Students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 1–9.

Papier, K., Ahmed, F., Lee, P., & Wiseman, J. (2015). Stress and dietary behaviour among first-year university students in Australia: Sex differences. Nutrition, 31(2), 324–330.

Salilih, Z., & Abajobir, A. (2014). Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Workplace Health & Safety, 62(8), 326–332.

Sathiya, N., Ruwaidha, R., Nusrath, F., Fathima, F., Gomathy, T., & Shailendra, H. (2016). Perceived stress levels and its sources among doctors and nurses working in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Community Medicine, 7(7), 603-608.

Telama, R., Yang, X., Leskinen, E., Kankaanpää, A., Hirvensalo, M., Tammelin, T., Viikari, J. S., & Raitakari, O. T. (2014). Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(5), 955–962.

Uemura, M., Yatsuya, H., Hilawe, E. H., Li, Y., Wang, C., Chiang, C., Otsuka, R., Toyoshima, H., Tamakoshi, K., & Aoyama, A. (2015). Breakfast Skipping is Positively Associated With Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence From the Aichi Workers’ Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology, 25(5), 351–358.

Worku, B., Ejigu, Y., & Siraneh, Y. (2020). Occupational Stress and Associated Factors among Nurses working in Public Hospitals of Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia, 2018. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science, 6(2), 17.

Yubonpunt, P., Kunno, J., Supawattanabodee, B., Sumanasrethakul, C., & Wiriyasirivaj, B. (2022). Prevalence of perceived stress and coping strategies among healthcare workers during the COVID -19 outbreak at Bangkok metropolitan, Thailand. PLoS ONE, 17(7), e0270924.

How to Cite

O. M. Adeojo, I.O. Dada and K. Ajayi. Nutritional Status and Perceived Stress of Healthcare Professionals in Ekiti State, Nigeria. J. Multidiscip. Res. Healthcare. 2023, 10, 1-12
Nutritional Status and Perceived Stress of Healthcare Professionals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Current Issue

ISSN Print2393-8536
ISSN Online2393-8544
RNI No.CHAENG/2014/57978
OA Policy

Publisher's policy of the journal at Sherpa UK for the submitted, accepted, and published articles. Click OAPolicy

Plan-S Compliance

To check compliance, one has to use the Journal Check Tool (JCT). This tool provided by cOAlition S (European funders) for the researchers (fundee) to check the compliance with the journal.

Recommend journal to your library

You can recommend the journal being a researcher or faculty member to your library. We will post a copy of the Journal to your library on your behalf at free of cost.
Click here: Recommend Journal

Preprint Arxiv Submission

The authors are encouraged to submit the author’s copy (preprint) to appropriate preprint archives e.g. and/or on or institutional repositories (e.g., D Space) before paper acceptance by the editor of Journal. After publications of the paper author(s) should mention the citation information, title and abstract along with DOI number of the publication carefully on the required page of the depository(ies).


Phone: +91-172-2741000, +91-172-4691800
Email :

Abstract and Indexing

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Articles in Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.

View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license,

View Licence Deed here

Creative Commons License

Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at